Furthermore, if the KD increases GABA levels in the brain, then such an effect is approximated by vigabatrin, an irreversible inhibitor of the degradative enzyme GABA-transaminase, as well as by tiagabine, a GABA re-uptake blocker that interferes with presnaptic GABA transporters (White et al., 2007). Yet, the anticonvulsant profile of the KD is distinct from that of vigabatrin and tiagabine (Hartman et al., 2007). The general approach of deriving another pill that enhances brain GABA levels may not be relevant or viable, since many seizure types seem to be exacerbated by agents that contribute to enhanced tonic inhibition, and extrasynaptic GABA receptors that mediate tonic inhibition are more sensitive to elevated ambient GABA concentrations (Sazgar & Bourgeois, 2005). Indeed, increased GABAergic inhibition in the cortex appears to underlie the mechanism of synchronization and seizure generation in two mouse models of autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (Klassen et al, 2006)
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Patricia Daly is a fully qualified Nutritional Therapist (BA Hons, dipNT, mBANT, mNTOI). She is an experienced nutritional therapist and author, specialising in cancer care and the ketogenic diet in particular. She has worked with hundreds of cancer patients in Ireland and abroad, lectures at the Irish Institute of Nutrition and Health and is a well-regarded speaker at conferences and in cancer centres.
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It is important to weigh out the pros and cons of any formula before you decide to use it for long term. When you look at a supplement, the first thing that should come to your mind is the ingredients and the possible side effects. So, base your pros and cons on these two factors. After that, you can check the credibility of the company and the reviews of customers who have used the supplement before you. All these things help you learn about the supplement in detail.
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Munculnya beragam jenis diet bisa bikin bingung. Berbagai manfaat dari setiap diet terdengar sangat menggoda, apalagi dengan klaim “efektif menurunkan berat badan”. Namun, jangan asal diet! Cari tahu dulu dengan jelas mengenai diet yang akan Anda jalani. Pastikan apakah sesuai dan aman untuk Anda. Salah satu jenis diet yang sedang banyak digemari yaitu diet keto. Diet keto adalah salah satu pola makan yang dianggap ampuh menurunkan berat badan secara cepat dan efektif.
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Glucose restriction is believed to be a key mechanism of KD action. Calorie restriction in rodents reduced seizure susceptibility and the resultant low blood glucose levels correlated with inhibition of epileptogenesis in a genetic model of stimulus-induced epilepsy (Greene et al., 2001). Along related lines, Garriga-Canut et al. (2006) demonstrated that 2-deoxyglucose, which inhibits the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase, prevented seizure progression in the rat kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and decreased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its principal receptor, TrkB. More recently, Lian and colleagues (2007) demonstrated that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP), a metabolite that shifts the metabolism of glucose from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway, exhibits potent anticonvulsant activity in several rat models of acute seizures (i.e., pilocarpine, kainic acid, and pentylenetetrazole), and efficacy in these models exceeds that of 2-DG and KD treatment. Collectively, these emerging data indicate that the overall strategy of limiting glycolytic flux may be a powerful way of preventing acute seizures and perhaps epileptogenesis as well.
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Jadi Anda benar-benar lebih khawatir tentang roti daripada burger? ya saya berpikir tentang hal itu bisakah Anda melakukan ini? ya saya benar-benar melakukannya dan Anda tahu sedang dan saya menyukainya. Apakah terstruktur, saya butuh aturan, saya pasti aturan ya. baik saya kira saya tertarik tetapi saya akan jika saya bisa berbicara secara terbuka tentang beberapa kekhawatiran saya.
In rats fed a KD, Ziegler et al (2003) found an increase in antioxidant activity using a luminol oxidation assay in the hippocampus, and a four-fold increase in glutathione peroxidase activity. Consistent with these findings, Jarrett et al (2008) recently reported an up-regulation of GSH biosynthesis in adolescent rats fed a KD. Furthermore, these investigators observed improved mitochondrial antioxidant status, and proposed that these changes were responsible for preventing mitochondrial DNA from oxidant-induced damage. Collectively, these studies suggest that the KD may indeed exert neuroprotective activity.
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The scientific rationale for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis or of therapeutic interventions has been traditionally based upon the lofty goal of discovering novel treatments, ones that would be more efficacious than existing options and also be devoid of side-effects altogether. Moreover, in epilepsy research, disease prevention or modification has become the “holy grail”, such that we are no longer complacent with symptomatic treatment and increasing attention is being given to understanding the processes of anti-epileptogenesis itself. Researchers in the field of the ketogenic diet (KD) have also embraced these tenets and recently embarked on that all-too-familiar Quixotic journey, with the ultimate aim of reducing the “difficult” KD regimen to a simple pill. If achieved, this result would represent an ironic recapitulation of the early history of the KD in the United States. Although the KD experienced an initial surge of interest following its introduction in the early 1920’s, it was relegated to near obscurity by the emergence of a familiar drug known as phenytoin. Henceforth, until the mid 1990’s, clinicians – for obvious practical reasons – found it simpler to prescribe a pill rather than an exacting diet.
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One of the nagging unresolved questions regarding ketone bodies is whether they correlate with seizure control. Recent studies have suggested that under certain conditions and in specific models, blood levels of ketones do not in fact correlate well with anticonvulsant effects (Hartman & Vining, 2007). However, ketone levels are known to vary considerably during the circadian cycle, mostly as a consequence of feeding schedules and subsequent metabolism of foodstuffs (DeGasquet et al., 1977). Despite numerous studies highlighting ketonemia following KD treatment, we still do not know what the true brain concentrations are, especially in the microenvironment of the highly metabolically active synapse. Moreover, there are other studies suggesting that high ketone body levels are not necessary for clinical efficacy of a high-fat diet against medically refractory epilepsies (Pfeifer & Thiele, 2005).
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Baur JA, Pearson KJ, Price NL, Jamieson HA, Lerin C, Kalra A, Prabhu VV, Allard JS, Lopez-Lluch G, Lewis K, Pistell PJ, Poosala S, Becker KG, Boss O, Gwinn D, Wang M, Ramaswamy S, Fishbein KW, Spencer RG, Lakatta EG, Le Couteur D, Shaw RJ, Navas P, Puigserver P, Ingram DK, de Cabo R, Sinclair DA. Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature. 2006;444:337–342. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
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While the relationships between seizure activity, oxidative stress and neuronal injury have yet to be clarified, previous studies have indicated that defects in antioxidant systems may contribute to seizure genesis and epileptogenesis (Cock, 2002; Patel, 2004; Liang & Patel, 2006; Shin et al, 2008). Earlier, the effects of a KD on mitochondrial ROS generation were discussed. Are there other mechanisms through which oxidative stress can be attenuated in epileptic brain?
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Bagaimana cara menghitung kebutuhan kalori harian saat diet? Sebetulnya tidak ada aturan yang pasti mengenai perhitungannya. Total kebutuhan kalori setiap orang itu berbeda-beda. Namun jika sedang berencana menurunkan berat badan, idealnya Anda hanya perlu mengurangi 500 kalori setiap hari. Dengan pengurangan ini, Anda dapat kehilangan 0,5-1 kg berat badan per minggu.
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What investigators have elucidated over the past decade or so is that a variety of molecular, genetic, cellular, and metabolic factors are likely contributory to the clinical effects of the KD. As a generalization, it is becoming widely accepted that the mechanistic underpinnings of the KD are likely multiple, parallel, and possibly synergistic (Bough & Rho, 2007).