It is well known that an increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential (▵ψ) can promote mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through increased electron shunting (Votyakova et al., 2001). Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) – which are activated by fatty acids – increase proton conductance and dissipate ▵ψ, thereby decreasing ROS formation (Mattson & Liu, 2003). Recent studies have implicated UCPs as potential mediators of a neuroprotective effect of the KD. Up-regulation of UCP2 expression in transgenic mice reduced seizure-induced neuronal cell death, and was associated with enhanced ATP levels and decreased ROS production (Diano et al., 2003). In normal rats, a high-fat suckling diet was protective against kainate-induced neuronal death in immature rat hippocampus, effects that were attributed to fatty acid-induced increases in UCP2 expression and reduction in ROS production (Sullivan et al., 2003). And finally, KD treatment in normal juvenile mice led to enhanced hippocampal expression and activity of all three known brain-localizable isoforms of UCP (i.e., UCP2, UCP4 and UCP5), and correlated with significant decreases in ROS levels (Sullivan et al., 2004).
Apakah keto membakar aman ekstrim
Diet keto tinggi lemak, dan sangat rendah karbohidrat memungkinkan Anda menikmati banyak variasi makanan seperti alpukat, mentega, bacon dan krim — tetapi membutuhkan pengurangan pada pada gula tambahan, sebagian besar makanan olahan, manisan, biji-bijian, dan sayuran bertepung. Diat atau eencana makan ini sangat populer di kalangan pesohor dunia (termasuk Halle Berry, Megan Fox, dan Gwyneth Paltrow); tetapi jika Anda tidak memiliki koki pribadi yang dapat menggunakan lemak untuk membuat makanan dan camilan lezat, gaya hidup yang diet keto yang membatasi karbohidrat dapat sangat sulit untuk diikuti.
Given these findings, it is not surprising that investigators have studied the effects of dietary supplementation with PUFAs alone, to determine whether these substrates can render an anticonvulsant effect. Early case reports suggested that seizures might be better controlled with this approach (Schlanger et al., 2002). However, a recent randomized trial in adult patients with epilepsy failed to demonstrate superiority of a PUFA supplement (EPA) plus DHA, 2.2 mg/day in a 3:2 ratio) over placebo (Bromfield et al., 2008). Thus, the jury is still out as to whether PUFAs alone can mirror the clinical effects of the KD.