Given these observations, would it be practical to package acetoacetate or acetone into a pill? While ketone bodies in situ are likely to influence local cellular bioenergetics, there are profound logistical constraints precluding ease of administration in humans to achieve comparable low millimolar concentrations observed in clinical practice (Hartman & Vining, 2007). Acetoacetate is highly unstable, as it has an immediate tendency to spontaneously decarboxylate, and acetone is a well known solvent that can cause significant mucosal irritation. Finally, oral ingestion of β-hydroxybutyrate formulations to achieve such concentrations may not be readily achievable (Smith et al., 2005). These considerations pose not insignificant challenges toward the design of a ketone pill.

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Munculnya beragam jenis diet bisa bikin bingung. Berbagai manfaat dari setiap diet terdengar sangat menggoda, apalagi dengan klaim “efektif menurunkan berat badan”. Namun, jangan asal diet! Cari tahu dulu dengan jelas mengenai diet yang akan Anda jalani. Pastikan apakah sesuai dan aman untuk Anda. Salah satu jenis diet yang sedang banyak digemari yaitu diet keto. Diet keto adalah salah satu pola makan yang dianggap ampuh menurunkan berat badan secara cepat dan efektif.

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Dalam proses penurunan berat badan memang menu makanan yang sehat, baik dan bergizi perlu diperhatikan disamping itu juga perlunya mengatur pola makan. akan tetapi banyak orang tidak terlalu memperhatikan menu makanan dalam diet sehingga tidak sedikit yang gagal atau sudah berhasil tetapi kemudian berat badan naik kembali. oleh karena itu dalam diet selain melakukan aktivitas fisik juga harus didukung dengan menu makanan sehari-hari yang sehat agar berat badan tetap ideal.

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Dikalangan para penggiat diet dan olahragawan menu diet 1 minggu ini tengah menjadi perbincangan. apa benar bisa menurunkan berat badan atau tidak. memang tidak sedikit orang yang meragukannya tapi tidak perlu khawatir banyak yang sudah mencoba program diet ini hasilnya bagus. dan jika anda ingin waktu yang lebih lama bisa mencoba menu diet cara menurunkan berat badan 10kg ala Sheina Malsiana salah satu peserta X-Faxtor Indonesia dengan ukuran badan jumbo.

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The scientific rationale for elucidating mechanisms of disease pathogenesis or of therapeutic interventions has been traditionally based upon the lofty goal of discovering novel treatments, ones that would be more efficacious than existing options and also be devoid of side-effects altogether. Moreover, in epilepsy research, disease prevention or modification has become the “holy grail”, such that we are no longer complacent with symptomatic treatment and increasing attention is being given to understanding the processes of anti-epileptogenesis itself. Researchers in the field of the ketogenic diet (KD) have also embraced these tenets and recently embarked on that all-too-familiar Quixotic journey, with the ultimate aim of reducing the “difficult” KD regimen to a simple pill. If achieved, this result would represent an ironic recapitulation of the early history of the KD in the United States. Although the KD experienced an initial surge of interest following its introduction in the early 1920’s, it was relegated to near obscurity by the emergence of a familiar drug known as phenytoin. Henceforth, until the mid 1990’s, clinicians – for obvious practical reasons – found it simpler to prescribe a pill rather than an exacting diet.

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So the question remains, can the KD be packaged into a pill? At this stage, given our state of knowledge, the likely answer is NO. Then, could we take a polypharmacy approach and develop a number of pills, each with a distinct mechanistic target? Such a strategy would not be too different than what is practiced by adults – and especially, the elderly – who are by both necessity and choice on multi-drug regimens and/or multi-nutritional supplements, again with the goal of achieving health and warding off the ravages of aging and disease. There is likely no “magic bullet” that completely mirrors the anticonvulsant (and potential neuroprotective) effects of the KD; the same could be said for the treatment of the epilepsies – a group of related conditions with widely divergent etiologies, and hence a multiplicity of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, without dissecting the component pieces of the complex metabolic puzzle posed by the KD, we would again be left with only empiric observations, and to wonder curiously how a high-fat diet can exert such profound clinical effects.

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Resep Tumis Bunga Pepaya Kangkung Khas Manado ini kesukaan saya dan suami. Di awal-awal mencoba menbuat sendiri, saya tidak tahu caranya agar bunga pepaya tidak pahit. Saya pikir sama caranya dengan mengolah pare, agar tidak pahit diremas-remas dengan garam terlebih dahulu. Meskipun pahitnya berkurang, tapi bentuk bunga pepaya jadi tidak bagus. Ternyata ada cara yang …

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Glucose restriction is believed to be a key mechanism of KD action. Calorie restriction in rodents reduced seizure susceptibility and the resultant low blood glucose levels correlated with inhibition of epileptogenesis in a genetic model of stimulus-induced epilepsy (Greene et al., 2001). Along related lines, Garriga-Canut et al. (2006) demonstrated that 2-deoxyglucose, which inhibits the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase, prevented seizure progression in the rat kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and decreased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its principal receptor, TrkB. More recently, Lian and colleagues (2007) demonstrated that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP), a metabolite that shifts the metabolism of glucose from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway, exhibits potent anticonvulsant activity in several rat models of acute seizures (i.e., pilocarpine, kainic acid, and pentylenetetrazole), and efficacy in these models exceeds that of 2-DG and KD treatment. Collectively, these emerging data indicate that the overall strategy of limiting glycolytic flux may be a powerful way of preventing acute seizures and perhaps epileptogenesis as well.

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Rencana ini memerlukan makan sekitar 120 gram protein per hari (atau empat porsi 4 ons daging, ikan atau unggas) dan sekitar 130 gram lemak per hari. Karbohidrat masih dibatasi hingga kurang dari 10% kalori harian. Tetapi banyak orang menganggap diet keto yang dimodifikasi ini lebih mudah diikuti, karena ini memungkinkan Anda untuk mengonsumsi lebih banyak protein dan lebih sedikit lemak daripada diet keto standar. Peringatannya adalah bahwa pendekatan ini mungkin tidak menghasilkan ketosis, karena seperti karbohidrat, protein dapat diubah menjadi glukosa untuk bahan bakar. Tetapi diet keto tinggi protein umumnya akan menghasilkan penurunan berat badan.
So, the natural question arises, do ketone bodies affect inhibitory (or excitatory) neurotransmission? Unfortunately, the answer is (at least for now) a fairly convincing no. Thio and colleagues (2000) showed that acute application of BHB and ACA did not affect: (1) excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and population spikes in CA1 pyramidal neurons after Schaffer collateral stimulation; (2) spontaneous epileptiform activity in the hippocampal-entorhinal cortex slice seizure model; and (3) whole-cell currents evoked by glutamate, kainate, and GABA in cultured hippocampal neurons.
Given these findings, it is not surprising that investigators have studied the effects of dietary supplementation with PUFAs alone, to determine whether these substrates can render an anticonvulsant effect. Early case reports suggested that seizures might be better controlled with this approach (Schlanger et al., 2002). However, a recent randomized trial in adult patients with epilepsy failed to demonstrate superiority of a PUFA supplement (EPA) plus DHA, 2.2 mg/day in a 3:2 ratio) over placebo (Bromfield et al., 2008). Thus, the jury is still out as to whether PUFAs alone can mirror the clinical effects of the KD.

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What investigators have elucidated over the past decade or so is that a variety of molecular, genetic, cellular, and metabolic factors are likely contributory to the clinical effects of the KD. As a generalization, it is becoming widely accepted that the mechanistic underpinnings of the KD are likely multiple, parallel, and possibly synergistic (Bough & Rho, 2007).
Munculnya beragam jenis diet bisa bikin bingung. Berbagai manfaat dari setiap diet terdengar sangat menggoda, apalagi dengan klaim “efektif menurunkan berat badan”. Namun, jangan asal diet! Cari tahu dulu dengan jelas mengenai diet yang akan Anda jalani. Pastikan apakah sesuai dan aman untuk Anda. Salah satu jenis diet yang sedang banyak digemari yaitu diet keto. Diet keto adalah salah satu pola makan yang dianggap ampuh menurunkan berat badan secara cepat dan efektif.

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Martina is an incredibly talented and innovative food blogger whose low-carb creations taste as spectacular as they look. She's also dedicated to providing accurate, reliable information to people interested in following a healthy, carbohydrate-restricted lifestyle. I'm eagerly awaiting the publication of this book and know that her many fans feel the same way.
Keto Pills—what are they and should you buy them? Great questions! Today we are looking at this supplement, which manufacturers claim can help you lose weight, burn fat, and increase energy. We will analyze these claims and discuss the process of weight loss that is too often overwrought with confusing and conflicting theories. Do you need to drop a lot of weight? Do you need to drop just a few pounds to get your ideal body? These are endeavors we undertake as summer approaches, but what are the best ways to get that hot body you’ve always wanted? Whether you are headed for a beach vacation or you want to get in better shape for health reasons, this article should be helpful!

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One of the nagging unresolved questions regarding ketone bodies is whether they correlate with seizure control. Recent studies have suggested that under certain conditions and in specific models, blood levels of ketones do not in fact correlate well with anticonvulsant effects (Hartman & Vining, 2007). However, ketone levels are known to vary considerably during the circadian cycle, mostly as a consequence of feeding schedules and subsequent metabolism of foodstuffs (DeGasquet et al., 1977). Despite numerous studies highlighting ketonemia following KD treatment, we still do not know what the true brain concentrations are, especially in the microenvironment of the highly metabolically active synapse. Moreover, there are other studies suggesting that high ketone body levels are not necessary for clinical efficacy of a high-fat diet against medically refractory epilepsies (Pfeifer & Thiele, 2005).


The developers of the app claim that it is one of the most comprehensive and also the easiest carb-restrictive trackers and macronutrient counters in the market today. You can easily log your meals and you can input data via voice, camera or search. The huge library of the app consists of more than a million science-verified foods. In addition, there is a barcode scanning feature that enables you to instantly pull data.

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